What is Colorectal cancer, its types, symptoms and treatment?

 In colorectal cancer, cells in the colon or rectum grow out of control. It is also known as colon cancer generically. The large intestine, or colon, is the large bowel. The rectum serves as the conduit between the colon and the anus. In the colon or rectum, abnormal growths known as polyps can develop occasionally. Some polyps may eventually develop into cancer. 

Polyps can be found through screening tests, allowing for their removal before they develop into cancer. Additionally, screening aids in the early detection of colorectal cancer, when therapy is most effective.

Types of Colorectal Cancer

There are several types of colorectal cancer as detailed follow:


Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from cells in the glands that produce the mucus needed to lubricate the colon and rectum. The most prevalent form of colon and rectum cancer is this one. Mucus makes up about 60% of mucinous adenocarcinomas. Cancer cells may spread and become more aggressive due to the mucus than usual adenocarcinomas. 10% to 15% of all rectal and colon adenocarcinomas are mucin-producing tumors.
 Less than 1% of all colon tumors are signed ring cell adenocarcinomas. Signet ring cell adenocarcinoma, so named because of how it appears under a microscope, is often aggressive and may be more challenging to treat.

Carcinoid Tumor

Carcinoid tumors form in nerve cells known as neuroendocrine cells, which aid in hormone production regulation. These tumors are part of the cancer subtype known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Slow-growing carcinoid tumor cells can form in the lungs and/or gastrointestinal tract. They represent 50% of all small intestinal tumors and 1% of all colorectal cancers.

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)

A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a particular kind of tumor that develops in the gastrointestinal tract, most frequently in the stomach or small intestine. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), specialized cells present in the gastrointestinal system, are assumed to be the source of this type of tumor as well as its progenitors. Tumors may form on affected people, either one or multiple. Children and young adults rarely develop GISTs, which are often prevalent in people between the ages of 40 and 70.


Due to the fact that lymphoid tissue can be located all over the body, lymphoma can develop in areas of the body other than the lymphatic system. So, outside of the lymphatic system, most frequently in the gastrointestinal tract, lymphomas account for 40% of cases. Colorectal lymphoma is one of the symptoms. 15 to 20 percent of gastrointestinal lymphomas are caused by colorectal lymphoma (as opposed to 50 to 60 percent in the stomach and 20 to 30 percent in the small intestine). 

Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer

Depending on the location and stage of the illness, the symptoms of colon cancer can change. Colon cancer may be undetected in its early stages. Rectal bleeding or blood in the stool changes in bowel habits including diarrhea or constipation, abdominal pain or cramping, unexpected weight loss, tiredness or exhaustion, and iron deficiency anemia are some frequent symptoms that can appear as the cancer progresses and spreads. 

Risk Factors of Colorectal Cancer

Your risk of getting colon cancer may increase due to a number of reasons. Family history of colon cancer, old age, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), smoking, a diet high in red and processed meats and low in fruits and vegetables, and obesity are a few of these risk factors. Talk to your doctor about getting screened for colon cancer if you have an inflammatory bowel illness, a personal or family history of colon cancer, or polyps.


The course of treatment for colon cancer is determined by the cancer's stage as well as other aspects including the patient's general condition. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy are all potential treatment modalities.


Surgery to remove the tumor and surrounding tissue is the most popular form of treatment for colon cancer. The entire colon or rectum may need to be removed in some circumstances. A colectomy or proctectomy is the medical term for this process.

Radiation therapy

High-energy X-rays are used in radiation therapy to kill cancer cells. In addition to chemotherapy or surgery, it may be used. Additionally, advanced colon cancer symptoms like pain or bleeding may be treated with radiation therapy.


Chemotherapy is a medical procedure that employs chemicals to eradicate cancer cells. Advanced colon cancer patients may receive it as their main course of treatment, before or after surgery. Chemotherapy is typically administered in cycles with rest intervals in between.

Targeted therapy

A newer kind of treatment, targeted therapy, targets particular chemicals in cancer cells to prevent their growth. It can be used as a stand-alone treatment for advanced colon cancer or in conjunction with chemotherapy.


Immunotherapy is a form of cancer treatment that boosts the immune system. It can be used as a stand-alone treatment for advanced colon cancer or in alongside chemotherapy.

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post